Perspectives on Education


Pedagogy is a critical dimension of education. It is the belief that there are universal processes and patterns in teaching and learning. It is the basis for many pedagogical approaches, but only a few are particularly useful. This article explores the various perspectives on education. We conclude with a discussion of programmatic definitions. These types of definitions are often short and simple, stating their intentions in a few words. However, it is important to keep in mind that they do not necessarily reflect the realities of education.

Pedagogy is a critical dimension of education

The notion of critical pedagogy involves a teacher’s awareness of the political nature of schooling. He or she understands that classroom materials reflect political decisions, and that the politics of schooling and the distribution of goods and services is intrinsic to the institution. According to McLaren and Kincheloe, all educational practices are inherently political. This means that critical pedagogy calls for teachers to be aware of their political responsibilities, and to take the necessary steps to counteract student resistance.

A third dimension of critical pedagogy involves borrowing from three philosophical areas: ontology, epistemology, and ethics. These areas address the meaning of existence and the question of what constitutes knowledge. Ethics concerns the rightness of conduct. Critical pedagogy can be explained using the philosophy of Paulo Freire, who sought to make education a political process by promoting social justice and democracy.

Pedagogy is the assumption that there are universal patterns and procedures in teaching

Pedagogy is the assumption that there is a system of teaching with certain, commonly understood principles and procedures. For instance, teachers can develop a lesson plan and implement it based on the theory of multiple intelligences, or they can develop a lesson plan with a particular focus on a particular learning style or ability. Regardless of the approach used, students should be aware of the different identities and backgrounds of their classmates and professors, and their needs should be met accordingly.

However, faculty members may make a number of mistakes in this regard, particularly in the provision of feedback to students. For example, professors may assume that students understand their poor performance because they did not put in the effort required. In reality, feedback is essential for student development, and faculty members should give constructive and honest feedback, as well as recommend concrete steps to improve a student’s work.

Perspectives on education

The various perspectives on education emphasize various characteristics of an educational system. Functionalists argue that educational systems perform various functions, namely, visible, unintended and hidden. Among these functions, the primary one is to teach children various kinds of facts and skills. This approach is often textbook-based and test-driven. The second perspective emphasizes the process of learning as a way to develop students’ virtues and principles. It may also include the study of classic languages and classic literature.

Functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism are three of the major sociological perspectives that provide insight into our understanding of education. Functionalists view education as a social institution, serving the needs of society and fostering equality. Conflict theorists, on the other hand, consider education to be a social institution that exacerbates inequality and marginalizes the lower classes. And, symbolic interactionists analyze the classroom as a social arena, where interactions between students and teachers affect the daily lives of individuals.